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The content of water is complex and varies with the different rocks and soils it filters through - it means that the taste can vary from area to area, for example, in a chalk area the mineral calcium carbonate will be present in the water whereas soft, upland water contains fewer minerals.
The temperature of water also influences the perception of taste and odour.
TOP TIP: Using correctly-installed plumbing materials and food-grade fittings which have been approved by WRAS (Water Regulations Advice Service) to be used in contact with drinking water will resolve most taste and odour problems.
You can also reduce tastes and odours in water by:
TOP TIP: To avoid metallic, bitter or sharp tastes in your drinking water, never use water from the hot water system for drinking and cooking.
Metallic, bitter or sharp tastes may be the result of metal dissolving from copper, iron or galvanised pipes in the plumbing system.
This may arise after the installation of new metal pipes but the taste will reduce over time as the pipework becomes conditioned with a protective layer of limescale or metal oxide which prevents the metal from dissolving.
In the meantime, metallic or bitter tastes can be reduced by running the tap to flush out the water that has been sitting in the pipes before drinking.
TOP TIP: Before using water for drinking and cooking, run your tap for a short while to flush out any water standing in the pipes. The run off water can be used on your houseplants. Warm water is less palatable and facilitates the dissolving of metals from the domestic plumbing system. Musty or stale tasting water can also be caused by the water standing in pipes or storage tanks for prolonged periods.
To avoid this, ensure that both hot and cold water pipes in your property are separated and insulated and that you only drink water direct from the mains supply. Sometimes, naturally occurring environmental factors can contribute an earthy or musty taste.
The most common cause is algal growth in reservoirs. During hot weather, some algae can release low levels of naturally occurring organic compounds such as geosmin, which are capable of giving a characteristic earthy or musty taste and odour, and detectable by some people at very low levels.
We optimise treatment processes on an ongoing basis to prevent unusual tastes and odours in drinking water.
Medicinal or TCP type tastes are usually traced to unsuitable or degraded tap washers, rubber tap extensions and other fittings, such as sealing rings in electric kettles.
If these contain even very low concentrations of phenolic chemicals, traces can dissolve in water and react with the chlorine forming chlorophenols, including TCP.
Although these are not considered harmful, they can cause noticeable tastes and odours at extremely low levels.
A frequent cause of TCP taints in the water supply is the flexible cold water feed pipes on washing machines or dishwashers. To identify whether an appliance connection is causing the taste issue, turn off the water supply to the appliance using the service valve at the point where the hose connects to the mains supply.
If the TCP taste disappears after running the tap for a short while when this valve is closed, this suggests that the flexible hose is the source of the problem.
The best solution is to have a one-way check valve fitted to the connector just before the flexible pipe to prevent backflow. Check valves are simple to intsall and can be purchased from most plumbing merchants and DIY stores.
Another cause of TCP taints in the water supply is the dissolving of materials from within your kettle, particularly when new. Always follow manufacturer's instructions when using a new kettle for the first time.
If a TCP taste is only present in hot drinks, boil some water in a clean saucepan. If the taste is no longer apparent, it suggests that something in the kettle is responsible.
For more information see
or see the
advice leaflet from the Drinking Water Inspectorate
TOP TIP: Chilling tap water in the fridge will reduce the chlorine taste and smell. Without chlorine, the water is at risk of bacterial contamination so it should be kept covered in the fridge for no more than 24 hours after being drawn from the tap.
It is a legal requirement to disinfect water. We use a dose of chlorine during the treatment process to disinfect water.
The residual level of chlorine in the water supply may vary according to:
If you dislike the chlorine taste to your water, it can be removed using a water filter. Please follow the manufacturer's instructions with regard to cleaning, maintaining and replacing the filter at specified intervals.
Plastic tastes are often caused by the use of unsuitable plumbing materials.
Only materials approved for use in contact with drinking water should be used.
Salty tastes can be caused by incorrectly installed ion water exchange water softeners. This may result in a backflow which can allow salty water from the softener to syphon back into the drinking water system.
To avoid this, always follow the requirements of the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999 and the British Water code of practice on installing water softeners.
We recommend you use
approved plumbers to carry out plumbing work and do not drink softened water.
One tap in your home - ideally the kitchen cold water tap - should be reserved for drinking water and remain unsoftened.
Eggy or sulphorous smells are usually a result of the odour from the waste trap of the sink affecting your perception of the water.
You can prove this by filling a clean glass with water from the tap, and taking it away from the sink (preferably into another room) before smelling it again.
If the water smells fresher away from the sink, it suggests the waste trap is the cause of the smell.
Over time, organic matter (such as food waste and soap) can accumulate on the walls of the drain and bacteria can grow on these deposits.
As the bacteria grow and multiply, they can produce gases that may smell like eggs or waste water. To get rid of this smell, clean and disinfect the drain pipe below the sink.
Petrol, diesel or solvent tastes and smells can can be associated with spills of chemicals or fuels such as heating oils, petrol or diesel on the ground near water pipes.
These contain chemicals that can soak rapidly through a driveway or soil and permeate plastic water pipes to cause an unpleasant taste or smell.
If you become aware of a spill or notice an oily taste or smell to your water,
Bits in water are usually caused by: